Voice Change (Active to Passive)

  (5/5, 48 votes)

Voice হচ্ছে ক্রিয়ার প্রকাশভঙ্গি যার মাধ্যমে বোঝা যায় যে কোন বাক্যের subject কাজটি করছে/করেছে/করবে নাকি কাজটি subject দ্বারা করা হচ্ছে/হয়েছে/হবে।

Voice is the way of expressing verbs which describes whether the subject does the work or it has been done by the subject.

Types of Voice:

Voice দুই প্রকারঃ

Active voice:

যে sentence-এ ‍ subject নিজে সক্রিয়ভাবে কাজটি করে সেই sentence-এ verb-এর active voice হয়।

The sentence in which the subject does the work by himself actively in that sentence the verb has an active voice.

Sentence Structure:

Subject + Verb + Object

Example:

  • I write articles.

Passive voice:

যে sentence-এ ‍ subject নিজে সক্রিয়ভাবে কাজটি করে না বরং object-এর কাজটি তার দ্বারা করা হয় সেই sentence-এ verb-এর passive voice হয়।

The sentence in which the subject does not do the work by himself actively rather the object’s work is done by the subject in that sentence the verb has passive voice.

Sentence Structure:

Object + be verb+ verb’s past participle + by+ subject

Example:

  • Articles are written by me.

Voice-কে active থেকে passive করার নিয়মগুলো নিচে বর্ণিত হল:

Rule 1:

a. Active voice-এর subject passive voice-এর object-এ রূপান্তরিত হয়।

Active voice’s subject is changed to passive voice’s object.

b. Active voice-এর object passive voice-এর subject-এ রূপান্তরিত হয়।

Active voice’s object is changed to passive voice’s subject.

c. মূল verb-এর past participle ব্যবহৃত হয় এবং auxiliary verb/ be verb নির্বাচন করা হয় subject এবং tense অনুযায়ী ।

Main verb’s past participle is used, and auxiliary verb/ be verb is chosen according to subject and tense.

Example:

  • I write poems. (Active)
  • Poems are written by me. (Passive)

Rule 2:

⇒ Indefinite tense-এর ক্ষেত্রে passive voice-এর structure:

a. Present- Object’s subject+ am/is/are+ Verb’s past participle+ by+ subject’s object

Example:

  • She praises me. (Active)
  • I am praised by her. (Passive)
  • I praise her. (Active)
  • She is praised by me. (Passive)

b. Past- Object’s subject+ was/were+ Verb’s past participle+ by+ subject’s object

Example:

  • She praised me. (Active)
  • I was praised by her. (Passive)
  • She praised them. (Active)
  • They were praised by her. (Passive)

c. Future- Object’s subject+ shall be/will be+ Verb’s past participle+ by+ subject’s object

Example:

  • She will praise me. (Active)
  • I shall be praised by her. (Passive)
  • She will praise him. (Active)
  • He will be praised by her. (Passive)

⇒ Continuous tense-এর ক্ষেত্রে passive voice-এর structure:

a. Present- Object’s subject+ am being/is being/are being+ Verb’s past participle+ by+ subject’s object

Example:

  • She is praising me. (Active)
  • I am being praised by her. (Passive)
  • She is praising him. (Active)
  • He is being praised by her. (Passive)
  • She is praising them. (Active)
  • They are being praised by her. (Passive)

b. Past- Object’s subject+ was being/ were being+ Verb’s past participle+ by+ subject’s object

Example:

  • She was praising me. (Active)
  • I was being praised by her. (Passive)
  • She was praising them. (Active)
  • They were being praised by her. (Passive)

c. Future- Object’s subject+ shall be being/will be being+ Verb’s past participle+ by+ subject’s object

Example:

  • She will be praising me. (Active)
  • I shall be being praised by her. (Passive)
  • She will be praising them. (Active)
  • They will be being praised by her. (Passive)

⇒ Perfect tense-এর ক্ষেত্রে passive voice-এর structure:

a. Present- Object’s subject+ has been/ have been+ Verb’s past participle+ by+ subject’s object

Example:

  • She has praised him. (Active)
  • He has been praised by her. (Passive)
  • She has praised me. (Active)
  • I have been praised by her. (Passive)

b. Past- Object’s subject+ had been+ Verb’s past participle+ by+ subject’s object

Example:

  • She had praised me. (Active)
  • I had been praised by her. (Passive)

c. Future- Object’s subject+ shall have been/ will have been+ Verb’s past participle+ by+ subject’s object

Example:

  • She will have praised me. (Active)
  1. I shall have been praised by her. (Passive)
  • She will have praised him. (Active)
  • He will have been praised by her. (Passive)

Rule 3:

May/might/can/could/must/ought to/going to-যুক্ত Sentence-এর ক্ষেত্রে passive voice-এর structure:

Object’s subject+ may/might/can/could/ must/ought to/going to+ be+ Verb’s past participle+ by+ subject’s object

Example:

  • You must write the poem. (Active)
  • The poem must be written by you. (Passive)
  • She may help you. (Active)
  • You may be helped by her. (Passive)
  • We ought to obey our parents. (Active)
  • Our parents ought to be obeyed by us. (Passive)
  • We are going to organize a party. (Active)
  • A party is going to be organized by us. (Passive)

Rule 4:

Imperative Sentence-এর ক্ষেত্রে passive voice-এর structure:

a. Main verb দিয়ে শুরু হওয়া Sentence-এর ক্ষেত্রে-

Let+ Object’s subject + be+ verb’s past participle

Example:

  • Write the article. (Active)
  • Let the article be written. (Passive)
  • Prepare the assignment. (Active)
  • Let the assignment be prepared. (Passive)

b. “Do not” দিয়ে শুরু হওয়া Sentence-এর ক্ষেত্রে-

Let not + Object’s subject + be+ verb’s past participle

Example:

  • Do not write the article. (Active)
  • Let not the article be written. (Passive)
  • Do not prepare the assignment. (Active)
  • Let not the assignment be prepared. (Passive)

c. Sentence “Let” দিয়ে শুরু হলে এবং এর পর personal object যেমন: me/us/him/her/you/them থাকলে-

Let+ Object’s subject + be + verb’s past participle+ personal object

Example:

  • Let me write the article. (Active)
  • Let the article be written by me. (Passive)
  • Let him write the letter. (Active)
  • Let the letter be written by him. (Passive)

d. “Never” দিয়ে শুরু হওয়া Sentence-এর ক্ষেত্রে-

Let not + Object’s subject + ever be + verb’s past participle

Example:

  • Never deceive anyone. (Active)
  • Let not anyone ever be deceived. (Passive)
  • Never go there. (Active)
  • Let not there ever be gone. (Passive)

e. Sentence main verb দিয়ে শুরু হলে এবং এর পর personal object যেমন: me/us/him/her/you/them থাকলে-

Let+ direct object + be+ verb’s past participle + for + personal object

Example:

  • Give me a pencil. (Active)
  • Let a pencil be given for me. (Passive)
  • Give me an eraser. (Active)
  • Let an eraser be given for me. (Passive)

Rule 5:

Interrogative Sentence-এর ক্ষেত্রে passive voice-এর structure:

a. Interrogative Sentence-কে Assertive Sentence-এ রূপান্তরিত করা হয়+ পরিবর্তিত Assertive sentence-কে passive form-এ নেয়া হয়+ পরিবর্তিত passive voice-এর auxiliary verb-কে sentence-এর শুরুতে বসান হয়+ Object-এর subject+ ……..+ by+ Subject-এর object+ প্রশ্নবোধক চিহ্ন (Tense অনুসারে করা হয়)।

Interrogative Sentence is changed to Assertive Sentence+ Changed Assertive sentence is taken to passive form+ Changed passive voice’s auxiliary verb is put at the starting of sentence+ Object’s subject+…. ……..+ by+ subject’s object+ note of interrogation (Done according to Tense)

Example:

  • Have you written the article? (Active)
  • You have written the article. (Assertive)
  • The article has been written by you. (Passive of Assertive)
  • Has the article been written by you? (Passive of the main sentence)
  • Are you writing the article? (Active)
  • You are writing the article. (Assertive)
  • The article is being written by you. (Passive of Assertive)
  • Is the article being written by you? (Passive of the main sentence)

b. “Who” দিয়ে শুরু হওয়া Sentence-এর ক্ষেত্রে-

Who-এর পরিবর্তে By whom+ Tense এবং person-অনুসারে Auxiliary verb+ object-এর      subject+ কোন কোনসময় tense অনুযায়ী “be/being/been” ব্যবহৃত হয়+ Verb-এর past participle+?

By whom instead of a who+ Auxiliary verb according to tense and person+ object’s subject+ sometimes “be/being/been” is used according to tense+ Verb’s past participle+?

    Example:

  • Who is writing the poem? (Active)
  • By whom is the poem being written? (Passive)

c. “Whom”- দিয়ে শুরু হওয়া Sentence-এর ক্ষেত্রে-

Whom এর পরিবর্তে Who+ Tense এবং person-অনুসারে Auxiliary verb+ Verb-এর past participle+ by+ subject-এর object+?

Who instead of a whom+ Auxiliary verb according to tense and person+ Verb’s past participle+ by+ subject’s object+?

Example:

  • Whom did you recommend? (Active)
  • Who was recommended by you? (Passive)

d. “What”- দিয়ে শুরু হওয়া Sentence-এর ক্ষেত্রে-

What+ Tense এবং person-অনুসারে Auxiliary verb+ Verb-এর past participle+ by+ subject-এর object+? (Tense অনুসারে করা হয়) ।

What+ Auxiliary verb according to tense and person+ Verb’s past participle+ by+ subject’s object+? (Done according to Tense)

Example:

  • What is he doing? (Active)
  • What is being done by him? (Passive)
  • What does he need? (Active)
  • What is needed by him? (Passive)

Rule 6:

Active sentence যার নিম্নরূপ কাঠামো:

Subject + verb + object +present participle-একে নিম্নরূপে passive করা হয়:

Object-এর subject+ Tense এবং person-অনুসারে Auxiliary verb + Verb-এর past participle+ present participle-যুক্ত অংশ+ by + subject-এর object।

The active sentence having structure like this-

Subject + verb + object +present participle is changed into passive in the following way: Object’s subject+ Auxiliary verb according to tense and person+ Verb’s past participle+ the part having present participle+ by + subject’s object.

Example:

  • I saw him performing the dance. (Active)
  • He was seen performing the dance by me. (Passive)

Rule 7:

Active voice-এর double object থাকলে Passive voice-এর কাঠামো:

দুটি object-এর যেকোনটি subject হিসেবে নেয়া হয় (ব্যক্তিবাচক object-টি পরিবর্তন করা ভাল) +Tense এবং person-অনুসারে Auxiliary verb +Verb-এর past participle+ অন্য object+ by+ active voice-এর subject-টি object হিসেবে লেখা হয়।

Passive voice’s structure in case of Active voice having double object-

Anyone of the two object is taken as the subject (Changing the personal object is better) + Verb’s past participle+ Auxiliary verb according to tense and person+ the other object+ by+ active voice’s subject is written as the object.

Example:

  • I gave her a dress. (Active)
  • She was given a dress by me. (Passive)

Rule 8:

Complex এবং compound sentence-যুক্ত Active voice-কে passive-এ পরিণত করার সময় উভয় clause-এর voice পরিবর্তন করা হয়।

In case of transforming active voice with the complex and compound sentence, into passive, the voices of both clauses are changed.

Example:

  • I know that he sang the song. (Active)
  • It is known to me that the song was sung by him. (Passive)

Note:

Active voice যদি “People say” দিয়ে শুরু হয়, তবে একে passive করতে হলে, এর শুরুতে “It is said that” ব্যবহৃত হয়।

If the active voice is started with “People say” while transforming it into passive “It is said that” is used in the beginning.

Example:

  • People say that Dhaka is the city of mosques. (Active)
  • It is said that Dhaka is the city of mosques. (Passive)

Rule 9:

সাধারণত: intransitive verb-এর passive voice হয় না। কিন্তু যদি intransitive verb-এর পরে preposition যুক্ত হয়ে একটি group verb তৈরী করে এবং এটি intransitive verb হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হয়, তবে passive রূপের structure হবে-

Object হবে subject+ Tense অনুসারে Auxiliary verb + Verb-এর past participle+ প্রদত্ত preposition+ by+ subject-এর object।

Generally, the intransitive verb doesn’t have any passive voice. But if preposition is added after the intransitive verb it creates a group verb, and it is used as an intransitive verb then the structure of the passive form will be-

Object will be subject+ Auxiliary verb according to Tense+ Verb’s past participle+ given preposition+ by+ subject’s object.

Example:

  • The boy took care of the parrots. (Active)
  • The parrots were taken care of by the boy. (Passive)

Rule 10:

Active voice-Reflexive objective যেমন: myself, yourself, himself, herself, yourselves, ourselves, themselves, প্রভৃতি থাকলে Passive-এর কাঠামো-

Active voice-এর একই subject passive form-এ ও+ Tense এবং person-অনুসারে Auxiliary verb + Verb-এর past participle+ by+ reflexive object।

Passive voice’s structure in case of active voice having Reflexive objective like myself, yourself, himself, herself, yourselves, ourselves, themselves, etc.-

Same subject of the active voice in passive form + Auxiliary verb according to tense and person+ Verb’s past participle+ by+ the reflexive object.

Example:

  • He mocked himself. (Active)
  • He was mocked by himself. (Passive)

Rule 11:  

Factitive object/ Complementary object-যুক্ত active voice-এর passive কাঠামো-

দ্রষ্টব্য: যদি কোন বাক্যে transitive verb যেমন: call, make, name, nominate, elect, select, প্রভৃতি থাকে কিন্তু একটি পূর্ণ অর্থ প্রকাশ করতে একটি অতিরিক্ত object ব্যবহৃত হয়, তবে এই অতিরিক্ত objectটিকে Factitive object/ Complementary object বলে।

Him, her, me, us, you, them, প্রভৃতিকে active রূপে নেয়া হয় এবং subject হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হয়+ Tense and person অনুযায়ী Auxiliary verb+ Verb-এর past participle+ factitive object+ by+ subject-এর object.

Passive voice’s structure in case of active voice having Factitive object/ Complementary object-

Note: If a sentence has a transitive verb like call, make, name, nominate, elect, select, etc. but still can’t express a full meaning and an extra object is used to have the full meaning. This extra object is called Factitive object/ Complementary object.

Him, her, me, us, you, them etc. are taken to active form and used as subject+ Auxiliary verb according to tense and person+ Verb’s past participle+ factitive object+ by+ subject’s object.

Example:

  • They made me a moderator. (Active)
  • I was made a moderator by them. (Passive)

Rule 12:  

Cognate object-যুক্ত active voice-এর Passive কাঠামো-

Cognate object: কিছু intransitive verb কিছু সাহায্যকারী object ব্যবহার করে transitive verb-এর মত আচরণ করে। এই সাহায্যকারী object-গুলোকে Cognate object বলে।

Object-টি ‍subject হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হয়+ Tense অনুসারে Auxiliary verb+ Verb-এর past participle+ by+ Subject-এর object.

Passive voice’s structure in case of active voice having cognate object-

Cognate object: Some intransitive verbs use some supporting object and act as a transitive verb. These supporting objects are called as a Cognate object.

The object is used as subject+ Auxiliary verb according to tense+ Verb’s past participle+ by+ Subject’s object.

Example:

  • He wrote a poem. (Active)
  • A poem was written by him. (Passive)

Rule 13:

Infinitive-যুক্ত active voice-এর passive কাঠামো-

Active voice-এর subject+ tense এবং person অনুযায়ী মূল verb+ infinitive-এর পরের object (যদি থাকে) + to be + infinitive-এর পরের verb-এর past participle

Passive voice’s structure in case of active voice having infinitive-

Active voice’s subject+ main verb according to tense and person + object situated after infinitive (if there is) + to be + past participle of the verb after infinitive.

Example:

  • He wants you to give a speech. (Active)
  • He wants a speech to be given. (Passive)

Rule 14:

Gerund combinations যেমন: suggest/recommend/advise/propose+ gerund+ object-যুক্ত active voice-এর passive কাঠামো-

Active voice-এর subject+ মূল verb+ that+ gerund-এর পরের object+ should be+ gerund-কে verb-এ পরিণত করে তার past participle.

Passive voice’s structure in case of active voice having gerund combinations, i.e., suggest/recommend/advise/propose+ gerund+ object-

Given active voice’s subject+ main verb+ that+ the object after the gerund+ should be+ the gerund is converted into a verb and its past participle.

Example:

  • He proposed watching the movie. (Active)
  • He proposed that the movie should be watched. (Passive)

Rule 15:

Determine/arrange/be determined/demand/decide/ be anxious, etc.+ infinitive + object-যুক্ত active voice-এর passive কাঠামো:

Active voice-এর subject+ মূল verb+ that+ infinitive -এর পরের object+ should be+ infinitive-কে verb-এ পরিণত করে তার past participle.

Passive voice’s structure in case of active voice having determine/arrange/be determined/demand/decide/ be anxious, etc.+ infinitive + object-

Given active voice’s subject+ main verb+ that+ the object after the infinitive+ should be+ the infinitive is converted into a verb and its past participle.

Example:

  • He decided to prepare the proposal. (Active)
  • He decided that the proposal should be prepared. (Passive)

Rule 16:

One+ should-যুক্ত active voice-এর Passive কাঠামো-

Object-এর subject+ should be+ Verb-এর past participle.  

Passive voice’s structure in case of active voice having One+ should-

Object’s subject+ should be+ Verb’s past participle.  

Example:

  • One should perform one’s prayers. (Active)
  • Prayers should be performed. (Passive)

 

Published By
About us  | Privacy Policy | Terms of Service
© 2018 grammarbd.com All Rights Reserved.