Present Tense (বর্তমান কাল)

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Tense (কাল)

কোন কাজ সম্পাদনের নির্দিষ্ট অথবা অনির্দিষ্ট সময়/সময়কালকে Tense বলা হয়।

ইংরেজি sentence গঠনের জন্য tense এর গুরুত্ব অসীম। ইংরেজিতে বিভিন্ন সময়কাল নির্দেশ করার জন্যে tense এর বিভিন্ন form ব্যবহার করা হয়। Tense এর মোট ১২ টি form রয়েছে। সকল ইংরেজি বাক্য এই ১২ টি form এর যেকোন একটি দিয়েই গঠন করা হয়।  

Tense, in English grammar, refers to the time of an action or event. It tells when the work is done. It identifies whether the work is done in the present, the past or the future.

There are three types of Tenses

Example:

  • I eat Rice/He eats rice. (Present Tense)
  • I ate rice/He ate rice. (Past Tense)
  • I shall eat rice/He will eat rice. (Future Tense)

Present Tense বা বর্তমান কাল কাকে বলে?  Present Tense কত প্রকার ও কি কি?  

Present Tense (বর্তমান কাল)

Present Tense এর চারটি form রয়েছে।

Present Indefinite Tense

বর্তমান কালে কোন কাজ করা হয়ে থাকে, অথবা অভ্যাসগতভাবে করা হয়, অথবা চির সত্য কোন কাজ বোঝালে তাকে Present Indefinite Tense ব্যবহার করা হয়।

It describes an action that is true, regular or normal. It uses the main verb or base form of the verb or the root verb.

বাংলায় চেনার উপায়: Verb এর শেষে অ, আ, এ, ই, এন, ও,এস,আয়,আন থাকবে।

 Example:

  • I go to School - আমি স্কুলে যাই।
  • He goes to school - সে স্কুলে যায়।
  • They play cricket - তারা ক্রিকেট খেলে।

Structure of the sentence: Base/root form of the verb is used as the main verb.

Positive Sentence:

Subject + main verb + complement

Note: In a sentence, if the subject is a third person singular number (he, she, it, or a singular noun), then ‘s’, ‘es’, ‘ies’ is added with the main verb in the sentence. But, if the subject is plural, there will be no addition of ‘s’, ‘es’, or ‘ies’.

Example:

  • I go to the market. (using the root form ‘go’)
  • He goes to the market. (root form of the verb is ‘go’ but ‘he’ is a third person singular number that’s why an extra ‘es’ is added with the verb)
  • Hasina wants a cup of tea. (Hasina is third person singular number)
  • The boys play cricket. (‘the boys’ = a third person plural number, that’s why there is no ‘s’ with the verb)

Negative Sentence:

Subject + Do not/Does not + main verb + object

Note: If the subject is ‘he/she/it or a singular noun’ then ‘Does not’ will be used to make it negative. If the subject of a sentence is ‘I/you/we/they’ or a plural noun, then ‘Do not’ will be used to make it negative.

Example:

  • Positive: I eat rice.
    Negative: I do not eat rice.
  • Positive: He goes to School.
    Negative: He does not go to School.
  • Positive: He walks in the evening.
    Negative: He does not walk in the evening.
  • Positive: They like to dance.
    Negative: They do not like to dance.

Question Sentence:

Do/ Does + Subject + Main verb + Object + Note of interrogation (?)

Note: If the sentence starts with the subject ‘he/she/it or a singular noun’ then ‘Does’ is used to make it Interrogative. If the sentence starts with the subject ‘I/we/you/they or a plural noun’ then ‘Do’ is used to make it Interrogative.

Example:

  • Positive: He sings a song.
    Interrogative: Does he sing a song?
  • Positive: She likes to talk to you.
    Interrogative: Does she like to talk to you?
  • Positive: We try to do the assignment.
    Interrogative: Do we try to do the assignment?
  • Positive: They love you.
    Interrogative: Do they love you?

Using ‘Be verb’ (am/is/are):

Subject + be verb (am/is/are) + object

Note: ‘am’ is used with the subject ‘I’. ‘is’ is used with the subject ‘he/she/it or the singular form of nouns. ‘are’ is used with the ‘we/you/they or the plural form of nouns.

Example:

  • I am a musician.
  • It is my pen
  • You are a fraud.

Negative sentence:

Subject + am not/is not/are not + object

Example:

  • Positive: I am a good boy.
    Negative: I am not a good boy.
  • Positive: It is her book.
    Negative: It is not her book.
  • Positive: You are my friend.
    Negative: You are not my friend.

Interrogative:

Am/is/are + subject + object + Note of Interrogation (?)

Example:

  • Positive: I am an intelligent boy.
    Interrogative: Am I an intelligent boy?
  • Positive: He is angry.
    Interrogative: Is he angry?
  • Positive: They are my friends.
    Interrogative: Are they my friends?

Present Continuous Tense

বর্তমানকালে বা অদূর/নিকট ভবিষ্যতে কোন কাজ চলছে/চলবে বোঝালে Present Continuous Tense ব্যবহার করতে হয়।

The present continuous tense designates an action that is being continued or going to be continued in the near future.

বাংলায় চেনার উপায়: Verb এর শেষে তেছ, তেছি , তেছেন, তেছে, চ্ছ, চ্ছি, চ্ছে, চ্ছেন, ছেন, ছি  ইত্যাদি থাকে।

Example:

  • I am going to school - আমি স্কুলে যাচ্ছি।
  • He is going to market - সে বাজারে যাচ্ছে।
  • They are playing football - তারা ফুটবল খেলছে।
  • The bus is leaving at 4.00 pm – বাসটি চারটায় ছাড়বে। (নিকট ভবিষ্যত)

Structure of the sentence: Verb এর present form এর সাথে ing যোগ করতে হয়।

Positive sentence:

Subject + am/is/are + main verb + ing + object

Example:

  • I am eating rice.
  • He is running to and fro.
  • They are going to school.
  • They are going to attend a party tonight. (নিকট ভবিষ্যত)

Note: ‘I’ এর পর am বসে, He/she/it এর পর is বসে। এবং subjectযদি third person singular number হয় তাহলেও subject এর পর is বসে। We/you/they এবং plural subject এর পর are বসে।

Negative sentence:

Subject + am/is/are + not + Main verb + ing + object

Example:

  • He is not drinking milk.
  • I’m not going to open a bank account.
  • They are not going to play football.

অর্থাৎ, am/is/are এর পর একটি not যোগ করে দিলেই negative sentence হয়ে যায়।

Interrogative sentence:

Am/is/are + subject + main verb + ing + object + ?

Example:

  • Am I going to Chittagong?
  • Is he drinking water?
  • Are they playing badminton?

Present Perfect Tense

কোন কাজ শেষ হয়ে গেছে অথচ তার ফল এখনও বিদ্যমান আছে, এরকম বোঝালে present perfect tense ব্যবহৃত হয়। 

It describes the work which has been done, but the effect exists till now.

বাংলায় চেনার উপায়: Verb এর শেষে য়াছে, এছে, য়াছ, য়াছি, এছি, য়াছেন, য়াছে, য়েছ, ইয়াছি, ইয়াছ, ইয়াছে, ইয়েছ, ইয়াছেন ইত্যাদি বসে। এছাড়া করি নাই, করিনি, খাই নাই, খাইনি, ইত্যাদি বোঝালে Present Perfect Tense হয়।

Example:

  • He has done the work - সে কাজটি করিয়াছে / করেছে।
  • I have gone to the market - আমি বাজারে গিয়াছি/গিয়েছি।
  • They have eaten mangoes – তারা আমগুলো খেয়েছে।
  • I have not eaten banana - আমি কলা খাইনি।

Structure of the sentence: The past participle form of the verb is used after have/has.

Positive sentence:

Subject + have/has + past participle form of verb + object

Example:

  • He has done the work.
  • I have eaten rice.
  • They have worked hard.

Note: Subject যদি He/she/it এবং third person singular number হয় তাহলে has বসবে। Subject যদি I/we/they/you এবং plural subject এর সাথে have বসবে।

Negative sentence:

Subject + have/has + not + past participle form of verb + object

Example:

  • He has not eaten rice.
  • They have not come to our house.
  • I have not gone to school.

Interrogative sentence:

Have/has + subject + past participle form of verb + object + ?

Example:

  • Has he done the homework?
  • Have they gone to school?
  • Have you learned speaking English?

Present Perfect Continuous Tense

কোন কাজ পূর্বে শুরু হয়ে এখনও চলছে বোঝালে Present perfect continuous tense ব্যবহৃত হয়।

The work started in the past and it is still running is called Present perfect continuous tense

বাংলায় চেনার উপায়: বাংলায় ক্রিয়ার শেষে তেছ, তেছি,তেছে, তেছেন, চ্ছ, চ্ছি, চ্ছে, চ্ছেন, ছ্, ছি্, ছে্, ছে্ন, ইত্যাদি উল্লেখ থাকে এবং সাথে সময়ের উল্লেখ থাকে।

Example:

  • I have been walking for two hours - আমি দুই ঘন্টা যাবৎ হাটছি।
  • He has been working in this office for five years - সে এই অফিসে পাঁচ বছর যাবৎ কাজ করছে।
  • They have been suffering from fever since Tuesday - তারা মঙ্গলবার হইতে জ্বরে ভুগছে।

Note: Subject third person singular number or he/she/ it হলে has been বসে। I/we/you/they এবং অন্যসব subject এর ক্ষেত্রে have been বসে। 

Note:

For সাধারণত একটি কাজের নির্দিষ্ট একটা সময়ের পরিমাণ বুঝাতে ব্যবহার করা হয়।

For is used to talk about a period of time: three hours, three months, twelve years, etc. For can be used with all tenses.

Since সাধারণত একটা নির্দিষ্ট সময় থেকে শুরু হয়ে আসা কাজের ক্ষেত্রে ব্যবহার করা হয়।

Since is used to talk about a point in past time: Sunday, 6th January, Morning, etc. Since can be used only in perfect tenses.

Structure of the sentence:

Positive sentence:

Subject + have been/has been + main verb + ing + since/from/for + object.

Example:

  1. He has been reading this newspaper for two hours.
  2. They have been walking since 7 am.
  3. You have been talking about the Internet for three hours.

Negative sentence:

Subject + have not/has not + been + main verb + ing + since/from/for + object.

Example:

  • I have not been walking for two hours.
  • It has not been raining.

Interrogative sentence:

Have/has + subject + been + main verb + ing + since/for (if needed) + object + ?

Example:

  • Has he been watching the movie?
  • Have they been waiting for two hours?
  • Has it been raining since morning?

 

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