Preposition (পদান্বয়ী অব্যয়)

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Preposition (পদান্বয়ী অব্যয়)

Preposition কাকে বলে? preposition কত প্রকার ও কি কি?

যে সকল শব্দ সাধারণত noun বা pronoun এর সামনে বসে noun বা pronoun এর সাথে sentence এর অন্যানো শব্দের সম্পর্ক প্রকাশ করে তাদেরকে preposition বলা হয়।

A preposition is a part of speech that indicates location, direction, time, etc. usually used in front of nouns or pronouns and it shows the relationship between the noun or pronoun and other words of the sentence. On, in, under, after, beside, to, towards, with, etc. are prepositions.

Example:

  • The book is on the table.

(Here “on” is indicating the location of the book, it is used in front of a noun “the table,” and it shows the relationship between the mentioned words. So it’s a preposition.)

  • We sat under the tree.

(Here “under” is indicating the location of “we”, it is used in front of a noun “the tree,” and it shows the relationship between the mentioned words. So it’s a preposition.)

  • The car was coming towards

(Here “towards” is similarly a preposition because it shows the location of ‘the car”, it is used in front of a pronoun “me”, and it indicates the relationship between the mentioned words.)  

Classification/Types of Prepositions:

Prepositions can be classified in different ways. These are discussed below.

Preposition কে বিভিন্নভাবে বিভক্ত করা যায় । এগুলো নিচে বর্ণনা করা হলো ।

Simple Preposition:

সাধারণত sentence এ ব্যবহৃত একক preposition গুলোকে simple preposition বলে ।

The preposition, used in a simple sentence is called simple preposition.

On, in, to, at, from, with, of, off, over, under, etc. are some examples of simple prepositions.

  Examples:

  • She is living in this room.
  • I am going to the varsity.
  • He was looking at me.

Compound Preposition:

যে preposition গুলো দুটো noun, pronoun অথবা phrase কে যুক্ত করতে ব্যবহৃত হয় তাদেরকে compound preposition বলে।  

The preposition used to join two nouns, pronouns or phrases is called compound preposition.

Between, before, around, about, along, above, etc. are some examples of compound prepositions.

Examples:

  • I will complete the work before he comes.
  • She was asking about this matter.
  • The river is running across the town.

Phrase Preposition:

যে preposition গুলো দলবদ্ধ শব্দ  এবং sentence এর  বিভিন্ন অংশের মধ্যে সম্পর্ক বোঝায় তাদেরকে phrase preposition বলে ।

The prepositions, which are a group of words, showing the relationship among various parts of the sentence, are called phrase prepositions.

In spite of, in front of, in order to, due to, on account of, for the sake of, etc. are some examples of phrase prepositions.

Examples:

  • She came here in order to meet me.
  • We were standing in front of the college.
  • She could not come here due to her illness.
  • I did not go to watch the movie assuming that it would be boring.

Double Preposition:

দুটো preposition যুক্ত হয়ে একটি নতুন preposition গঠণ করলে তাকে double preposition বলে ।

When two prepositions come together to create a new word, e.g., because of, from behind, within, out of, outside of, etc. are called Double preposition.

Examples:

  • He could not come to the meeting because of his illness.
  • I have to do this work within today.
  • I have to answer three questions out of all.

Preposition of time:

যে preposition কোনো কাজের সময় বা একটি sentence এর noun গুলোর মধ্যে সময়ের সম্পর্ক  নির্দেশ করে  তাকে preposition of time বলে

The preposition indicating time in a speech is called preposition of time.

Examples:  

  • I will try to come at 6:30 pm.
  • This program will be held in January.
  • Try to come on Monday.

Preposition of place:

যে preposition গুলো কোনোকিছুর অবস্থান নির্দেশ করে তাকে preposition of place বলে

The preposition, which is used to indicate where something is located, is called preposition of place. Such as behind, under, on, in, at, between, over, etc.

Examples:

  • The boy was standing behind the tree.
  • She lives in Dhanmondi in Dhaka.

Preposition of direction:

যে preposition কোনোকিছুর বা কারো দিকে নির্দেশ করে  তাকে preposition of direction বলে ।

The preposition used to indicate the direction of something or someone is called preposition of direction. Such as in, on, under, over, left, right, etc.

Examples:

  • The school is situated on the right side of the town.
  • The jeep is now going over the bridge.
  • The bird is sitting on the roof.

Preposition for an agent:

যে preposition কোনো কাজ ও কাজ সম্পাদনকারীর মধ্যে সম্পর্ক নির্দেশ করে তাকে preposition for agent বলে ।

The preposition used to indicate a relation on the basis of a cause between a work and its doer is called preposition for an agent.

Examples:

  • I like to go there with you.
  • She likes to read the books written by Tagore.

Preposition used for Tools, Mechanism or Gadget:

এই preposition গুলো বিভিন্ন noun কে  ( যন্ত্র, বাদ্যযন্ত্র , মেশিন প্রভৃতি ) sentence এর অন্যান্য শব্দের সাথে যুক্ত করে ।

The prepositions which are used in case of tools, mechanism or gadget are called preposition used for tools, mechanism or gadget.

Examples:

  • I opened the bottle with the help of an opener.
  • He likes to go long drives by his car.
  • She came here on foot.
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