Determiners & Quantifiers

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Determiners

Determiners কি?

Determiners হচ্ছে এমন কতগুলো শব্দ যা noun বা noun phrase এর পূর্বে বসে, এবং সেটি specific নাকি generic সেটি নির্দেশ করে। 

Determiners are words used before nouns or noun phrases and tell whether the noun is specific or generic.

There are two types of Determiners:

These two types of determiners are described below:

Specific Determiners

নির্দিষ্ট করে কোন কিছু কে বোঝাতে specific determiners ব্যবহৃত হয়।

These are used to indicate specific things.

নীচে কিছু specific determiners দেয়া হলো:

  • The definite article: The
  • Demonstratives: These, this, those, that
  • Possessives: My, his, her, your, its, their, our, whose
  • Interrogatives: which

Examples:

  • Keep the book on the
  • I read your letter.
  • Whose book is this?
  • There is a garden in front of my

General Determiners:

General determiners নির্দিষ্ট করে কোন কিছু বোঝায় না। তারা একটা সাধারণ সামগ্রিক অর্থ প্রদান করে।

These are used to refer the noun and indicate it in a general or unspecific way. An uncountable noun or a plural noun can be used with no determiners.

নীচে কিছু general determiners সম্পর্কে আলোচনা করা হলো:

These are: a, an, another, any, other, what

Example:

  • Water is life. (uncountable noun)
  • Education is the backbone of a nation. (Un-countable noun)
  • Girls are doing better than the boys. (Plural noun with no determiners)

A singular noun can be used with the indefinite article a or an.

A এবং an এর সাথে অবশ্যই একটি indefinite singular noun বসবে।

Example:

  • A boy is saved by a pet dog.
  • A girl was sitting in the field.
  • He is an honest man.

To denote all of those things/people, we use ‘any’.

‘সব কিছু’ বোঝাতে any ব্যবহৃত হয়। 

  • Any person can solve the problem - যে কেউ সমস্যাটি সমাধান করতে পারে। (মানে সবাই এই সমস্যাটি সমাধান করতে পারবে)
  • I like any meat - আমি যে কোন মাংস পছন্দ করি। (সেটা খাসি, গরু, কিংবা মুরগির মাংসও হতে পারে। মানে আমি সব মাংস পছন্দ করি)

To denote additional thing or person, we use ‘another.’

‘অতিরিক্ত’ কোন কিছু বোঝাতে ব্যবহৃত হয়।

  • Would you like to take another cup of coffee?
  • You may take another book.
  • I saw Arian and few other friends with him. (Other is the plural form of another)

Quantifiers

Quantifier সাধারণত noun এর পরিমাণ, সংখ্যা ইত্যাদি প্রকাশ করে।

Quantifiers state the amount or the number or the quantity of a noun.

Three types of quantifiers are:

These are described below:

Quantifiers for count nouns:

These quantifiers are used for only countable nouns. These are: ‘a number of, few, many, several.’

A number of, few, many, several সহ আরো কিছু quantifier শুধুমাত্র countable noun এর ক্ষেত্রে ব্যবহৃত হয়।

Example:

  • Many people know me there.
  • I’ll leave for a couple of
  • He injured by several stabs in his body.
  • I know a few people in this area.

Quantifiers for non-count nouns:

These quantifiers are used only for uncountable nouns. These are:not much, a little, little, a bit of, a good deal of, a great deal of, etc.

Not much, a little, little, a bit of, a good deal of, a great deal of  সহ এই ধরণের quantifier গুলো শুধুমাত্র un-countable noun এর ক্ষেত্রে ব্যবহৃত হয়।   

Example:

  • I have few friends in this area.
  • I’m a little bit sick today.
  • I have much experience in renewable energy.

Quantifiers for both count and non-count nouns:

These quantifiers are used for both countable and non-countable nouns. These are: a lot of, some, all of the, most of the, enough, lots of, plenty of, lack of, etc.’

A lot of, some, all of the, most of the, enough, lots of, plenty of, lack of সহ এই ধরণের quantifier গুলো countable and un-countable উভয় noun এর ক্ষেত্রেই ব্যবহৃত হয়।

Example:

  • I have a lot of (countable)
  • Give him some (non-countable)
  • Most of the people in this area are honest. (countable)
  • He has enough knowledge about power plant engineering. (non-countable)
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