Clause

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Clause কাকে বলে? Clause কত প্রকার ও কি কি?

Clause হচ্ছে কয়েকটি শব্দের সমষ্টি যাতে একটি subject এবং একটি verb অবশ্যই থাকে। Clause ছাড়া কোন বাক্য তৈরী করা যায়না। প্রতিটি বাক্যেই এক বা একাধিক clause থাকে।

A clause is an association of some words that contain both a subject and a predicate. A sentence must contain a clause at least.  

Example:

  • He bought a new motorcycle. (One sentence, one clause)
  • He bought a new motorcycle, but he still has the old one. (One sentence, two clauses).

There are two types of the clause. These are:

Independent or Main Clause:

একটি independent বা main clause একটি পূর্ণ অর্থসহ একটি সম্পূর্ণ বাক্য তৈরী করতে পারে। এটির একটি subject এবং একটি verb অবশ্যই থাকে এবং এটি একা একটি বাক্য তৈরী করতে পারে এবং একটি বাক্যের অংশও হতে পারে। দুটি সমান independent clauses-কে যুক্ত করতে Coordinating conjunctions (and, or, but, for, nor, so, yet) এর আগে একটি কমা ব্যবহৃত হয়।

An independent or main clause can make a complete sentence with a complete thought. It contains both a subject and a predicate and it can alone make a sentence and can be a part/clause of the sentence. Coordinating conjunctions (and, or, but, for, nor, so, yet) are used to connect two equal independent clauses, using a comma before the conjunction.

Example:

  • We visited Comilla in October.
  • He ate a bowl of noodles.
  • We visited Comilla in October, and then we visited Dhaka in November.

Dependent or Subordinate Clause:

একটি dependent/subordinate clause একা কোন সম্পূর্ণ অর্থ বা বাক্য তৈরী করতে পারেনা। Dependent clause সাধারণত subordinating conjunction/relative pronoun বা অন্য কোন শব্দ দিয়ে শুরু হয় যা dependent clause টিকে একটি independent clause-এর সাথে যুক্ত করে একটি সম্পূর্ণ অর্থ প্রকাশ করতে সাহায্য করে।

A dependent/subordinate clause doesn’t make any complete sense or complete sentence alone. Dependent clause begins with subordinating conjunctions, relative pronoun, or some other words that help to add an independent clause to make a complete sense.

Example:

  • I saw a poor boy, who was hungry.
  • The teacher asked many questions, but nobody could answer.
  • She went to bed after watching the show.

Types of subordinate clause

A Subordinate clause works as an adverb, an adjective or a noun in a sentence.

এটা একটি বাক্যে একটি adverb, একটি adjective বা একটি noun হিসেবে কাজ করে। সেই অনুযায়ি, subordinate clause তিন প্রকার।

There are three types of subordinate clause according to their functioning in a sentence.

Noun Clause:

The subordinate clause that acts as a noun in a sentence is called Noun Clause. It usually starts with the words such as ‘that, whatever, what, whom, who, whoever’. It works as a noun either at the place of a subject or an object.

Noun Clause বাক্যে একটি subject বা একটি object-এর স্থানে noun হিসেবে কাজ করে।

Example:

  • Whatever you read increases your knowledge. (Noun as a subject)
  • Tell me who left his watch on the field. (Direct object)
  • Whoever cleaned the house deserves a reward. (Subject)

Adjective Clause

যে subordinate clause বাক্যে একটি adjective হিসেবে কাজ করে এবং noun বা pronoun-কে modify করে তাকে Adjective Clause বলে।

The subordinate clause that acts as an adjective and modifies noun or pronoun in a sentence is called Adjective Clause. Mostly, it starts with a relative pronoun such as ‘who, whose, whom, that, which, etc.’

Example:

  • He saw a poor beggar who was hungry. (Modifies noun: beggar))
  • I love the people who respect the teacher. (Modifies noun: people)
  • I watch the movie Ainabaji which amused me a lot. (Modifies noun: movie)

Adverb Clause:

যে subordinate clause একটি বাক্যে একটি adverb হিসেবে কাজ করে এবং একটি verb,বা একটি adjective-clause বা অন্য একটি adverb clause-কে modify করে তাকে Adverb Clause বলে।

The subordinate clause that acts as an adverb and modifies a verb, an adjective-clause or another adverb clause in a sentence is called Adverb Clause. It modifies a verb of the main clause in terms of frequency, time, cause and effect and condition.

It uses the following conjunctions:

  • Time: whenever, when, until, since, as, while, after, before, as soon as, by the time.
  • Cause and effect: so, so that, as, because, since, as long as, now that.
  • Contrast: though, although, while, even, whereas.
  • Condition: whether or not, if, unless, only if, providing or provided that, in case, even if.

Example:

  • The students had gone before the bell rang.
  • Knock me when you need help.
  • He worked in a jute mill while he was living in Chittagong.
  • I live a happy life as long as I think positively.
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