Case

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একটি sentence-এ noun এবং pronoun-এর অন্যান্য শব্দের সাথে ব্যাকরণগত সম্পর্ককে case বলে।

The grammatical association of nouns and pronouns to other words in a sentence is defined as the case.

Types of Case:

In English, there are mainly four types of cases:

ইংরেজীতে প্রধানত: চার ধরনের Case আছে:

The Subjective Case or Nominative Case

Noun অথবা pronoun যেগুলো একটি sentence-এ verb-এর subject হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হয় তাকে subjective case বা nominative case বলে।

Nouns or pronouns used as the subject of a verb in a sentence are called the subjective case or nominative case.

Example:

  • Afrin is going to the varsity.
  • She is going to the varsity.

This case is also used for a subject complement. As for example:

  • He is a doctor.

The Possessive Case or Genitive Case

যে case অধিকার বোঝাতে ব্যবহৃত হয় তাকে possessive case বা genitive case বলে।

The case which is used to show possession is called the possessive case or genitive case. In case of nouns, an apostrophe is used to show it.

Example:

  • This is Afrin’s book.
  • This is her book.

The Objective Case or Accusative Case or Dative Case

Noun বা pronoun যা একটি verb-এর direct বা indirect object অথবা একটি preposition-এর object তাকে objective বা accusative বা dative case বলে।

The noun or pronoun which is either the direct or indirect object of a verb or the object of a preposition is called the objective or accusative or dative case.

Example:

  • I met Sam.
  • I met him.
  • The doctor is taking care of her.

The Vocative Case

Noun বা pronoun যা কোন ব্যক্তিকে সরাসরি সম্বোধন করতে ব্যবহৃত হয় তাকে vocative case বলে।

The noun or pronoun which is used to address a person directly is called the vocative case.

Example:

  • Sohana, are you coming for the program?
  • You, get out of the room.
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