Voice Change (Passive to Active)

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Voice-কে passive থেকে active করার নিয়মগুলো নিচে বর্ণিত হল:

Rule 1:

a) Passive voice-এর object active voice-এর subject-এ রূপান্তরিত হয়।

Passive voice’s object is changed to active voice’s subject.

b) Passive voice-এর subject Active voice-এর object-এ রূপান্তরিত হয়।

Passive voice’s subject is changed to active voice’s object.

c) Subject এবং tense অনুসারে main verb বা এর past/ future রূপ ব্যবহার করা হয় verb-এর past participle-এর পরিবর্তে; auxiliary verb/ be verb এবং by উঠিয়ে দেয়া হয়।

Main verb or it’s past/ future form is used instead of verb’s past participle according to subject and tense; auxiliary verb/ be verb and by are being removed.

Example:

  • Designs are prepared by me. (Passive)
  • I prepare designs. (Active)

Rule 2:

⇒ Indefinite tense-এর ক্ষেত্রে Active voice-এর structure:

a) Present- Subject-এর object+ am/is/are বাদ+ past participle-এর পরিবর্তে subject অনুযায়ী মূল verb+ by বাদ+ Object-এর subject

Subject’s object+ am/is/are is removed+ Main verb instead of past participle according to subject+ by is removed+ Object’s subject

Example:

  • I am supported by her. (Passive)
  • She supports me. (Active)
  • She is supported by me. (Passive)
  • I support her. (Active)

b) Past- Subject-এর object+ was/were বাদ+ past participle-এর পরিবর্তে subject অনুযায়ী মূল verb-এর past form + by বাদ+ Object-এর subject

Subject’s object+ was/were is removed+ Main verb’s past form instead of past participle + by is removed+ Object’s subject

Example:

  • I was supported by her. (Passive)
  • She supported me. (Active)
  • They were supported by her. (Passive)
  • She supported them. (Active)

c) Future- Subject-এর object+ shall/will+ be বাদ+ past participle-এর পরিবর্তে subject অনুযায়ী মূল verb by বাদ+ Object-এর subject

Subject’s object+ shall/will+ be is removed+ Main verb instead of past participle + by is removed+ Object’s subject

Example:

  • I shall be assisted by her. (Passive)
  • She will assist me. (Active)
  • He will be assisted by her. (Passive)
  • She will assist him. (Active)

⇒ Continuous tense-এর ক্ষেত্রে Active voice-এর structure:

a) Present- Subject-এর object+ am/is/are+ being বাদ+ মূল verb+ ing + by বাদ+ Object-এর subject

Subject’s object+ am/is/are+ being is removed+ Main verb+ ing + by is removed+ Object’s subject

Example:

  • I am being supported by her. (Passive)
  • She is supporting me. (Active)
  • He is being supported by her. (Passive)
  • She is supporting him. (Active)
  • They are being supported by her. (Passive)
  • She is supporting them. (Active)

b) Past- Subject-এর object+ was/were+ being বাদ + মূল verb+ ing + by বাদ+ Object-এর subject

Subject’s object+ was/were+ being is removed+ Main verb+ ing + by is removed+ Object’s subject

Example:

  • I was being supported by her. (Passive)
  • She was supporting me. (Active)
  • They were being supported by her. (Passive)
  • She was supporting them. (Active)

c) Future- Subject-এর object+ shall/will + being বাদ+ মূল verb+ ing + by বাদ+ Object-এর subject

Subject’s object+ shall/will + being is removed+ Main verb+ ing + by is removed+ Object’s subject

Example:

  • I shall be being supported by her. (Passive)
  • She will be supporting me. (Active)
  • They will be being supported by her. (Passive)
  • She will be supporting them. (Active)

⇒ Perfect tense-এর ক্ষেত্রে Active voice-এর structure:

c) Present- Subject-এর object+ has/have+ been বাদ+ Verb-এর past participle+ by বাদ+ Object-এর subject

Subject’s object+ has/have+ been is removed+ Verb’s past participle+ by is removed+ Object’s subject

Example:

  • He has been supported by her. (Passive)
  • She has supported him. (Active)
  • I have been supported by her. (Passive)
  • She has supported me. (Active)

b) Past- Subject-এর object+ had+ been বাদ+ Verb-এর past participle+ by বাদ+ Object-এর subject

Subject’s object+ had+ been is removed+ Verb’s past participle+ by is removed+ Object’s subject

Example:

  • I had been supported by her. (Passive)
  • She had supported me. (Active)

c) Future- Subject-এর object+ shall have /will have + been বাদ+ Verb-এর past participle+ by বাদ+ Object-এর subject

Subject’s object+ shall have /will have + been is removed+ Verb’s past participle+ by is removed+ Object’s subject

Example:

  • I shall have been supported by her. (Passive)
  • She will have supported me. (Active)
  • He will have been supported by her. (Passive)
  • She will have supported him. (Active)

Rule 3:

May/might/can/could/ must/ought to/going to + be+ Verb’s past participle+ by+ object-যুক্ত Sentence-এর ক্ষেত্রে Active voice-এর structure:

Subject-এর object+ may/might/can/could/ must/ought to/going to+ be বাদ+ past participle-এর পরিবর্তে মূল verb+ by বাদ+ Object-এর subject

Active voice’s structure in case of Sentence having may/might/can/could/ must/ought to/going to + be+ Verb’s past participle+ by+ object

Subject’s object+ may/might/can/could/ must/ought to/going to+ be is removed+ main verb instead of past participle+ by is removed + Object’s subject

Example:

  • You may be assisted by her. (Passive)
  • She may assist you. (Active)
  • The song must be sung by you. (Passive)
  • You must sing the song. (Active)
  • A picnic is going to be arranged by us. (Passive)
  • We are going to arrange a picnic. (Active)

Rule 4:

Imperative Sentence এর ক্ষেত্রে Active voice-এর structure:

a) Let+ Object’s subject + be+ verb’s past participle-এই কাঠামোযুক্ত passive voice-কে নিম্নরূপে active করা হয়-

Sentence মূল verb দিয়ে শুরু হবে+ Object-এর subject

Passive voice with this structure: Let+ Object’s subject + be+ verb’s past participle, will be turned into the active form in the following way-

Sentence will start with main verb+ Object’s subject

Example:

  • Let the design be prepared. (Passive)
  • Prepare the design. (Active)

b) Let not + Object’s subject + be+ verb’s past participle- এই কাঠামোযুক্ত passive voice-কে নিম্নরূপে active করা হয়-

Sentence “Do not” দিয়ে শুরু হবে+ মূল verb+ Object-এর subject

Passive voice with this structure: Let not + Object’s subject + be+ verb’s past participle will be turned into the active form in the following way-

Sentence will start with “Do not” + main verb+ Object’s subject

Example:

  • Let not the math be done. (Passive)
  • Do not do the math. (Active)

c) Let+ Object’s subject + be + verb’s past participle+ personal object (me/us/him/her/you/them) - এই কাঠামোযুক্ত passive voice-কে নিম্নরূপে active করা হয়-

Let+ Personal object+ মূল verb+ Object-এর subject

Passive voice with this structure: Let+ Object’s subject + be + verb’s past participle+ personal object (me/us/him/her/you/them) will be turned into active in the following way-

Let+ Personal object+ main verb+ Object’s subject

Example:

  • Let the poem be written by me. (Passive)
  • Let me write the poem. (Active)
  • Let the poem be written by him. (Passive)
  • Let him write the poem. (Active)

d) Let not + Object’s subject + ever be + verb’s past participle- এই কাঠামোযুক্ত passive voice-কে নিম্নরূপে active করা হয়-

Never দিয়ে Sentence শুরু হবে+ মূল verb+ Object-এর subject

Passive voice with this structure: Let not + Object’s subject + ever be + verb’s past participle will be turned into the active form in the following way-

Sentence will start with “Never” + main verb+ object’s subject

Example:

  • Let not anyone ever be (Passive)
  • Never mistreat anyone. (Active)

e) Let+ direct object + be+ verb’s past participle + for + personal object (me/us/him/her/you/them) এই কাঠামোযুক্ত passive voice-কে নিম্নরূপে active করা হয়-

Sentence মূল verb দিয়ে শুরু হবে+ personal object+ direct object

Passive voice with this structure: Let+ direct object + be+ verb’s past participle + for + personal object (me/us/him/her/you/them) will be turned into active in the following way-

Sentence will start with the main verb+ personal object+ direct object

Example:

  • Let an eraser be given for (Passive)
  • Give me an eraser. (Active)

Rule 5:

Interrogative Sentence এর ক্ষেত্রে Active voice-এর structure:

a) Sentence-এর শুরুতে auxiliary verb + Object’s subject+…. ……..+ by+ subject’s object+ প্রশ্নবোধক চিহ্ন (Tense অনুযায়ী করা)-এই কাঠামোযুক্ত passive voice-কে নিম্নরূপে active করা হয়-

Auxiliary verb+ Subject’s object+ Tense অনুযায়ী verb-এর রূপ + Object’s subject+?

Passive voice with this structure: auxiliary verb at the starting of sentence+ Object’s subject+…. ……..+ by+ subject’s object+ note of interrogation (Done according to Tense)

will be turned into the active voice in the following way-

Auxiliary verb+ Subject’s object+ verb’s form according to Tense+ Object’s subject+ ?

Example:

  • Has the assignment been prepared by you? (Passive)
  • Have you prepared the assignment? (Active)

b) By whom + Tense এবং person অনুযায়ী auxiliary verb + object’s subject+ কখনও কখনও tense অনুযায়ী “be/being/been” ব্যবহৃত হয় + Verb’s past participle+? -এই কাঠামোযুক্ত passive voice-কে নিম্নরূপে active করা হয়-

Who দিয়ে sentence শুরু হবে+ Tense এবং person অনুযায়ী auxiliary verb+ tense এবং person অনুযায়ী Verb-এর রূপ + subject’s object.

Passive voice with this structure: By whom + auxiliary verb according to tense and person+ object’s subject+ sometimes “be/being/been” is used according to tense+ Verb’s past participle+? -will be turned into the active voice in the following way-

The sentence will start with who+ Auxiliary verb according to tense and person+ Verb’s form according to tense and person+ subject’s object.

Example:

  • By whom is the proposal being prepared? (Passive)
  • Who is preparing the proposal? (Active)

c) Who+ Tense এবং person অনুযায়ী auxiliary verb + Verb’s past participle+ by+ subject’s object+? -এই কাঠামোযুক্ত passive voice-কে নিম্নরূপে active করা হয়-

Whom দিয়ে sentence শুরু হবে+ Tense এবং person অনুযায়ী auxiliary verb + Verb’s past participle+ by+ subject’s object+?

Passive voice with this structure: Who+ Auxiliary verb according to tense and person+ Verb’s past participle+ by+ subject’s object+? -will be turned into the active voice in the following way-

The sentence will start with whom+ Auxiliary verb according to tense and person+ Verb’s past participle+ by+ subject’s object+?

Example:

  • Who was recommended by you? (Passive)
  • Whom did you recommend? (Active)

d) What+ Tense এবং person অনুযায়ী auxiliary verb + Verb’s past participle+ by+ subject’s object+? (Tense অনুযায়ী করা)- এই কাঠামোযুক্ত passive voice-কে নিম্নরূপে active করা হয়-

What দিয়ে sentence শুরু হবে+ Tense এবং person অনুযায়ী auxiliary verb + subject’s object+ Tense এবং person অনুযায়ী verb-এর রূপ+?

Passive voice with this structure: What+ Auxiliary verb according to tense and person+ Verb’s past participle+ by+ subject’s object+? (Done according to Tense) -will be turned into the active form in the following way-

The sentence will start with What+ + Auxiliary verb according to tense and person+ subject’s object+ verb’s form according to tense and person+?

Example:

  • What has been done by you? (Passive)
  • What have you done? (Active)

Rule 6:

Object’s subject+ Tense এবং person অনুযায়ী auxiliary verb + Verb’s past participle+ present participle-যুক্ত একটি অংশ + by + subject’s object - এই কাঠামোযুক্ত passive voice-কে নিম্নরূপে active করা হয়-

Subject + verb + object +present participle+ Subject’s object

Passive voice having structure like this-

Object’s subject+ Auxiliary verb according to tense and person+ Verb’s past participle+ a part having present participle+ by + subject’s object - will be turned into the active voice in the following way-

Subject + verb + object +present participle+ Subject’s object

Example:

  • He was seen singing the song by me. (Passive)
  • I saw him singing the song. (Active)

Rule 7:

Double object এবং এই কাঠামোযুক্ত passive voice-এর ক্ষেত্রে-

দুইটির মধ্যে যেকোন একটি object-কে subject হিসেবে ধরা হয় (সাধারণতঃ personal object-টি) + Verb’s past participle+ Tense এবং person অনুযায়ী auxiliary verb+ অন্য object+ by+ Subject’s object- active form

হবে নিম্নরূপঃ

Subject’s object+ Tense এবং person অনুযায়ী verb-এর রূপ+ personal object+ অন্য object.

Passive voice having double object and structure like this-

Anyone of the two object is taken as the subject (generally personal object is subject) + Verb’s past participle+ Auxiliary verb according to tense and person+ the other object+ by+ Subject’s object- will be turned into the active form in the following way-

Subject’s object+ verb’s form according to tense and person+ personal object+ the other object.

Example:

  • She was given a book by me. (Passive)
  • I gave her a book. (Active)

Rule 8:

“It is known to me” structure-যুক্ত passive voice-কে

এই রূপে active করা হয়…..”I know that…”( Tense এবং person অনুযায়ী করা হয়)

Passive voice having “It is known to me” structure-

Will be transformed into active in this way…..”I know that…”(Done according to tense and person)

Example:

  • It is known to me that the speech was given by him. (Passive)
  • I know that he gave the speech.  (Active)

দ্রষ্টব্য:

যদি passive voice-টি “It is said that” দিয়ে শুরু হয় তবে একে active রূপে নিতে শুরুতে “People say” ব্যবহার করা হয়।

Note:

If the passive voice is started with “It is said that” while transforming it into active “People say” is used in the beginning.

Example:

  • It is said that Bangladesh is the land of rivers. (Passive)
  • People say that Bangladesh is the land of rivers. (Active)

Rule 9:

সাধারণতঃ intransitive verb-এর passive voice হয় না। কিন্তু যদি intransitive verb-এর পরে preposition যোগ করে একটি group verb তৈরী হয় এবং এটা intransitive verb-এর মত ব্যবহৃত হয়, তবে passive রূপের কাঠামো হবে-

Subject+ Tense অনুযায়ী auxiliary verb+ Verb’s past participle+ preposition+ by+ subject’s object.

একে নিম্নরূপে active রূপে নেয়া হয়-

Object হবে subject+ tense এবং person অনুযায়ী verb-এর রূপ+ preposition+ subject হবে object.

Generally, the intransitive verb doesn’t have any passive voice. But if preposition is added after the intransitive verb it creates a group verb and it is used as an intransitive verb, the structure of the passive form will be-

Subject+ Auxiliary verb according to Tense+ Verb’s past participle+ given preposition+ by+ subject’s object.

It is turned into the active form in the following way-

The object will be subject+ verb’s form according to tense and person+ given preposition+ subject will be the object.

Example:

  • The cats were taken care of by the boy. (Passive)
  • The boy took care of the cats. (Active)

Rule 10:

নিম্নোক্ত কাঠামোযুক্ত passive voice-এর ক্ষেত্রে active voice-এর কাঠামো-

Subject+ Tense এবং person অনুযায়ী auxiliary verb+ Verb’s past participle+ by+ the reflexive object (myself, yourself, himself, herself, yourselves, ourselves, themselves, প্রভৃতি):

Subject+ Tense এবং person অনুযায়ী মূল verb-এর রূপ+ the reflexive object

Active voice’s structure in case of passive voice having structure like this-

Subject+ Auxiliary verb according to tense and person+ Verb’s past participle+ by+ the reflexive object (myself, yourself, himself, herself, yourselves, ourselves, themselves, etc.):

Subject+ Main verb’s form according to tense and person+ the reflexive object

Example:

  • He was hurt by himself. (Passive)
  • He hurt himself. (Active)

Rule 11:  

নিম্নোক্ত কাঠামোযুক্ত passive voice-এর ক্ষেত্রে active voice-এর কাঠামো-

Subject+ Tense এবং person অনুযায়ী auxiliary verb+ Verb’s past participle+ factitive object+ by+ subject’s object:

Him, her, me, us, you, them, প্রভৃতিকে active রূপে নেয়া হয় এবং subject হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হয়+ Tense এবং person অনুযায়ী verb-এর রূপ+ subject’s object+ factitive object.

Active voice’s structure in case of passive voice having structure like this-

Subject+ Auxiliary verb according to tense and person+ Verb’s past participle+ factitive object+ by+ subject’s object:

Him, her, me, us, you, them etc. are taken to active form and used as subject+ Verb’s form according to tense and person+ subject’s object+ factitive object.

Example:

  • I was made the leader by them. (Passive)
  • They made me the leader. (Active)

দ্রষ্টব্য: যদি একটি বাক্যে একটি transitive verb যেমনঃ call, make, name, nominate, elect, select, প্রভৃতি থাকা সত্ত্বেও একটি পূর্ণ অর্থ প্রকাশ করতে না পারে এবং একটি অতিরিক্ত object ব্যবহার করে পূর্ণ অর্থ প্রকাশ করা হয় তবে এই অতিরিক্ত object-টিকে Factitive object/ Complementary object বলে।

Note: If a sentence has a transitive verb like call, make, name, nominate, elect, select, etc. but still can’t express a full meaning and an extra object is used to have the full meaning. This extra object is called Factitive object/ Complementary object.

Rule 12:  

Cognate object এবং এই কাঠামোযুক্ত passive voice-এর ক্ষেত্রে-

subject+ Tense এবং person অনুযায়ী auxiliary verb+ Verb’s past participle+ by+ Subject’s object-একে নিম্নরূপে active রূপে নেয়া হবে-

Object হবে subject+ Tense এবং person অনুযায়ী মূল verb-এর রূপ+ Cognate object.

Cognate object:

কিছু intransitive verb কিছু সাহায্যকারী object ব্যবহার করে এবং transitive verb-এর মত আচরণ করে। এই সাহায্যকারী object-গুলোকে Cognate object বলে।

Passive voice having cognate object and having structure like this-

subject+ Auxiliary verb according to tense+ Verb’s past participle+ by+ Subject’s object-

will be taken to the active voice form in this way:

Object will be subject+ main verb’s form according to tense and person+ Cognate object

Cognate object: Some intransitive verbs use some supporting object and act as a transitive verb. These supporting objects are called as a Cognate object.

Example:

  • A pizza was made by him. (Passive)
  • He made a pizza. (Active)

Rule 13:

এই কাঠামোযুক্ত passive voice-এর ক্ষেত্রে-

subject+ মূল verb+ object + to be + verb-এর past participle-একে নিম্নরূপে active রূপে নেয়া হবে:

Passive voice-এর subject+ Tense এবং person অনুযায়ী মূল verb+ second person+ infinitive+ object.

Passive voice having structure like this-

subject+ main verb+ object + to be + past participle of the verb - will be taken to the active form in this way:

Passive voice’s subject+ main verb according to tense and person+ second person+ infinitive+ object.

Example:

  • He wants a song to be sung. (Passive)
  • He wants you to sing a song. (Active)

Rule 14:

এই কাঠামোযুক্ত passive voice-এর ক্ষেত্রে-

subject+ main verb (suggest/recommend/advise/propose) + that+ the object + should be+ verb’s past participle-কে এভাবে active রূপে নেয়া হবে:

Passive voice’s subject+ Tense এবং person অনুযায়ী মূল verb + gerund+ object.

Passive voice having structure like this-

subject+ main verb (suggest/recommend/advise/propose) + that+ the object + should be+ verb’s past participle- will be taken to active form in this way:

Passive voice’s subject+ main verb according to tense and person+ gerund+ object.

Example:

  • He proposed that the song should be listened to. (Passive)
  • He proposed listening to the song. (Active)

Rule 15:

এই কাঠামোযুক্ত passive voice-এর ক্ষেত্রে-

subject+ main verb (determine/arrange/be determined/demand/decide/ be anxious, প্রভৃতি) + that+ the object + should be+ verb’s past participle-একে নিম্নরূপে active রূপে নেয়া হয়:

Passive voice’s subject+ Tense এবং person অনুযায়ী মূল verb + infinitive+ object.

 Passive voice having structure like this-

subject+ main verb (determine/arrange/be determined/demand/decide/ be anxious, etc.) + that+ the object + should be+ verb’s past participle- will be taken to active form in this way:

Passive voice’s subject+ main verb according to tense and person+ infinitive+ object.

Example:

  • He decided that the speech should be given. (Passive)
  • He decided to give the speech. (Active)

Rule 16:

এই কাঠামোযুক্ত passive voice-এর ক্ষেত্রে-

Object’s subject+ should be+ Verb’s past participle-একে এইরূপে active রূপে নেয়া হয়:

One+ should+ মূল verb+ object

Passive voice having structure like this-

Object’s subject+ should be+ Verb’s past participle- will be taken to the active form in this way:

One+ should+ main verb+ object

Example:

  • The duty should be performed. (Passive)
  • One should perform the duty. (Active)
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