Narration - Reporting to Reported Speech

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কিভাবে direct speech-কে indirect speech-এ পরিণত করা হয় তা নিচে বিশদভাবে বর্ণিত হল:

যখন direct speech-কে indirect speech-এ পরিবর্তিত করা হয় তখন tense-এর নিম্নোক্ত নিয়মগুলো অনুসরণ করা হয়।

1. Direct speech-কে indirect speech-এ পরিণত করার সময় যদি reporting verb, present বা future tense-এ থাকে তবে reported speech-এর verb-এর কোন পরিবর্তন হয়না।

During changing direct speech into indirect speech, if the reporting verb is in the present or future tenses, there is no change in the tense of the verb in the reported speech.

Example:

  • He says, “You love music.” (Direct)
  • He says that you love music. (Indirect)
  • He says, “You loved the music.” (Direct)
  • He says that you loved the music. (Indirect)
  • He will say, “You love music.” (Direct)
  • He will say that you love music. (Indirect)

2. যখন reporting verb, past tense-এ থাকে তখন reported speech-এর verb past tense-এর চার প্রকারের এক বা অন্য প্রকারে পরিবর্তিত হয়।

When reporting verb is in the past tense the reported speech’s verb is changed to one or the other of the four forms of past tense. ‍

i. Present Indefinite Tense, Past Indefinite Tense-এ পরিবর্তিত হয়।

Present Indefinite Tense is changed into Past Indefinite Tense.

Example:

  • He said to me, “She goes to school every day.” (Direct)
  • He told me that she went school every day. (Indirect)

ii. Present Continuous Tense, Past Continuous Tense- এ পরিবর্তিত হয়। অর্থাৎ-

Am, is বা are+ verb-এর simple form +ing –থেকে- was or were+ verb-এর simple form +ing

Present Continuous Tense is changed into Past Continuous Tense, i.e.

Am, is or are+simple form of verb+ing –to- was or were+ simple form of verb+ing

Example:

  • He said to me, “She is going to school.” (Direct)
  • He told me that she was going to school. (Indirect)
  • He said to me, “Is she going to school?” (Direct)
  • He asked me if she was going to school. (Indirect)

iii. Present Perfect tense, Past Perfect Tense- এ পরিবর্তিত হয়। অর্থাৎ-

Has বা Have+ verb-এর past participle form- থেকে - Had+ verb-এর past participle form

Present Perfect tense is changed into Past Perfect Tense, i.e.

Has or Have+ past participle form of verb-to- Had+ past participle form of verb

Example:

  • He said to me, “She has gone to school.” (Direct)
  • He told me that she had gone to school. (Indirect)

iv. Present Perfect Continuous tense, Past Perfect Continuous Tense- এ পরিবর্তিত হয়। অর্থাৎ-

Has or Have been+ verb-এর simple form +ing– থেকে -Had been+ verb-এর simple form +ing

Present Perfect Continuous tense is transformed to Past Perfect Continuous Tense, e.

Has or Have been+ simple form of verb+ing–to-Had been+ simple form of verb+ing

Example:

  • He said to me, “She has been studying for five hours.” (Direct)
  • He told me that she had been studying for five hours. (Indirect)

v. Past Indefinite Tense, Past Perfect Tense-এ পরিবর্তিত হয়, অর্থাৎ-

Verb-এর Past form – থেকে- Had+ verb-এর past participle form

Past Indefinite Tense is changed into Past Perfect Tense, i.e.

Past form of verb -to- Had+ past participle form of verb

Example:

  • He said to me, ”She did it.” (Direct)
  • He told me that she had done it. (Indirect)

vi. Past Continuous Tense, Past Perfect Continuous Tense- এ পরিবর্তিত হয়, অর্থাৎ-

Was or were+ verb-এর simple form +ing – থেকে - Had been+ verb-এর simple form +ing

Past Continuous Tense is changed into Past Perfect Continuous Tense, i.e.

Was or were+ simple form of verb +ing –to- Had been+ simple form of verb +ing

Example:

  • He said to me, “She was doing the work.” (Direct)
  • He told me that she had been doing the work. (Indirect)

vii. Past Perfect Tense এবং Past Perfect Continuous Tense একই থাকে।

Past Perfect Tense and Past Perfect Continuous Tense remain the same.

Example:

  • He said to me, “ She had done it.” (Direct)
  • He told me that she had done it. (Indirect)
  • He said to me, “She had been studying for three hours.” (Direct)
  • He told me that she had been studying for three hours. (Indirect)

viii. Shall এবং will “would”-এ পরিবর্তিত হয়; can “could”-এ এ পরিবর্তিত হয় এবং may “might”-এ পরিবর্তিত হয়।

Shall and will are changed into “would”; can is changed into “could” and may is changed into “might”.

Example:

  • He said to me, “She will go to school.” (Direct)
  • He told me that she would go to school. (Indirect)
  • He said to me, “She can do it.” (Direct)
  • He told me that she could do it. (Indirect)
  • He said to me, “She may come.” (Direct)
  • He told me that she might come. (Indirect)

3. যখন reported speech কোন চিরন্তন সত্য, বা অভ্যাসগত সত্য বোঝায়, তখন reported speech-এর verb অপরিবর্তিত থাকবে যদিও reporting verb, past form-এ থাকে।

When the reported speech states some universal truth or habitual fact, the reported speech’s verb remains unchanged, even if the reporting verb is using the past form.

Example:

  • He said, “Son, the sun rises in the East, not the west.” (Direct)
  • Addressing me as son he said that the sun rises in the east, not the west. (Indirect)
  • He said, “You love music.” (Direct)
  • He said that you love music. (Indirect)

4. শব্দ যেগুলো দ্বারা কাছের সময় বা জায়গা বোঝায়, সেগুলো নিম্নের নিয়মে দূরত্ববোধক করা হয়:

The words showing nearness of time or place are changed into words showing distance in the following ways:

From To From To From To From To
Now Then This That Here There Today That day
Tonight That night These Those Yesterday The previous day Come Go
Hence Thence Last night The previous night Thus So Hither Thither
Tomorrow The next day Ago Before - - - -

 

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