Narration - Reported to Reporting Speech

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Reported থেকে Reporting Speech এ পরিবর্তনের নিয়ম:

How indirect speech is changed to direct speech is broadly discussed below.

When indirect speech is changed to direct speech, the following rules of tense are followed.

1. Indirect speech-কে direct speech-এ পরিণত করার সময় যদি reporting verb, present বা future tense-এ থাকে তবে reporting speech-এর verb-এর কোন পরিবর্তন হয় না।

During changing indirect speech into direct speech, if the reporting verb is in the present or future tenses, there is no change in the tense of the verb in the reporting speech.

Example:

  • He says that you love cats. (Indirect)
  • He says, “You love cats.” (Direct)
  • He says that you loved the cat. (Indirect)
  • He says, “You loved the cat.” (Direct)
  • He will say that you love cats. (Indirect)
  • He will say, “You love cats.” (Direct)

2. যখন reporting verb, past tense-এ থাকে তখন reporting speech-এর verb past tense-এর চার প্রকারের এক বা অন্য প্রকারে পরিবর্তিত হয়। যেমন:

i. Past Indefinite Tense, Present Indefinite Tense-এ পরিবর্তিত হয়।

Past Indefinite Tense is changed into Present Indefinite Tense.

Example:

  • He told me that she studied every day. (Indirect)
  • He said to me, “She goes studies every day.” (Direct)

ii. Past Continuous Tense, Present Continuous Tense - এ পরিবর্তিত হয়। অর্থাৎ-

Am, is বা are+ verb-এর simple form +ing –থেকে- was বা were+ verb-এর simple form +ing

Past Continuous Tense is changed into Present Continuous Tense, i.e.

was or were + simple form of verb+ing –to- Am, is or are + simple form of verb+ing

Example:

  • He told me that she was studying. (Indirect)
  • He said to me, “She is studying.” (Direct)
  • He asked me if she was studying. (Indirect)
  • He said to me, “Is she studying?” (Direct)

iii. Past Perfect Tense, Present Perfect tense - এ পরিবর্তিত হয়। অর্থাৎ-

Had + verb-এর past participle form- থেকে - Has বা Have + verb-এর past participle form

Past Perfect Tense is changed into Present Perfect tense, i.e.

Had+ past participle form of verb-to- Has or Have + past participle form of verb

Example:

  • Hasan told me that Saira had done it. (Indirect)
  • Hasan said to me, “Saira has done it.” (Direct)

iv. Present Perfect Continuous tense, Past Perfect Continuous Tense- এ পরিবর্তিত হয়। অর্থাৎ-

Had been + verb-এর simple form +ing– থেকে - Has বা Have been + verb-এর simple form +ing

Past Perfect Continuous Tense is changed into Present Perfect Continuous tense, i.e.

Had been + simple form of verb+ing–to- Has or Have been + simple form of verb+ing

Example:

  • He told me that she had been singing for five hours. (Indirect)
  • He said to me, “She has been singing for five hours.” (Direct)

v. Past Perfect Tense, Past Indefinite Tense -এ পরিবর্তিত হয়, অর্থাৎ-

Had+ verb-এর past participle form – থেকে- Verb-এর Past form

Past Perfect Tense is changed into Past Indefinite Tense, i.e.

Had+ past participle form of verb -to- Past form of verb

Example:

  • He told me that she had sung it. (Indirect)
  • He said to me, ”She sang it.” (Direct)

vi. Past Perfect Continuous Tense, Past Continuous Tense - এ পরিবর্তিত হয়, অর্থাৎ-

Had been+ verb-এর simple form +ing– থেকে - Was or were+ verb-এর simple form +ing

Past Perfect Continuous Tense is changed into Past Continuous Tense, i.e.

Had been+ simple form of verb +ing –to- Was or were+ simple form of verb +ing

Example:

  • He told me that she had been singing the song. (Indirect)
  • He said to me, “She was singing the song.” (Direct)

vii. Past Perfect Tense এবং Past Perfect Continuous Tense একই থাকে।

Past Perfect Tense and Past Perfect Continuous Tense remain the same.

Example:

  • He told me that she had sung it. (Indirect)
  • He said to me, “ She had sung it.” (Direct)
  • He told me that she had been singing for three hours. (Indirect)
  • He said to me, “She had been singing for three hours.” (Direct)

viii. “Would”, Shall/will -এ পরিবর্তিত হয়; “could”,can-এ পরিবর্তিত হয় এবং “might”, may-এ পরিবর্তিত হয়।

“Would” is changed into Shall/will; “could” is changed into can and“might” is changed into may.

Example:

  • He told me that she would sing the song. (Indirect)
  • He said to me, “She will sing the song.” (Direct)
  • He told me that she could sing the song. (Indirect)
  • He said to me, “She can sing the song.” (Direct)
  • He told me that she might sing the song. (Indirect)
  • He said to me, “She may sing the song.” (Direct)

2. যখন reported speech কোন চিরন্তন সত্য, বা অভ্যাসগত সত্য বোঝায়, তখন reporting speech-এর verb অপরিবর্তিত থাকবে যদিও reporting verb, past form-এ থাকে।

When the reported speech states some universal truth or habitual fact, the reporting speech’s verb remains unaffected even if the reporting verb is in past form.

Example:

  • He said that the sun sets in the west. (Indirect)
  • He said, “The sun sets in the west.” (Direct)
  • He said that you love cats. (Indirect)
  • He said, “You love cats.” (Direct)

3. দূরত্ববোধক শব্দগুলোকে নিম্নের নিয়মে কাছের সময় বা জায়গা বোঝায় এমন শব্দে পরিণত করা হয়:

From To From To From To From To
Then Now That This There Here That day Today
That night Tonight Those These The previous day Yesterday Go Come
Thence Hence The previous night Last night So Thus Thither Hither
The next day Tomorrow Before Ago - - - -

 

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