Passage Narration

  (5/5, 9 votes)

Passage narration লেখার সময় কিছু নির্দিষ্ট নিয়ম অনুসরণ করা হয়। সব নিয়মগুলো নিচে উদাহরণসহ বর্ণিত হল:

Some certain rules are followed while writing passage narration. All the rules are discussed with examples below:

Rule 1:

At first, you have to read the whole passage to identify the speaker and the audience. Then you have to determine the mood of the verb in their speeches.

প্রথমে, সম্পূর্ণ passage টি পড়ে বক্তা এবং শ্রোতাকে চিহ্নিত করতে হবে। তারপর তাদের উক্তিগুলোর ক্রিয়ার ধরন বুঝতে হবে।

Example:

  • Will you come with me?”, said Pria to Ria. “I will come.” Said Ria. (Direct)
  • Pria asked Ria if she would come with her. Ria replied that she would come. (Indirect)

Rule 2:

When the reporting verb is placed in the middle or at the last of the sentence while converting it into Indirect you have to put it after the subject in starting of the sentence.

যখন reporting verb sentence-এর মাঝে বা শেষে থাকে তবে একে Indirect করতে তাকে sentence-এর শুরুতে subject-এর পরে বসাতে হবে।

Example:

  • “Where do you live?”, said Tina. “I live at Dhanmondi.”, said Rina. (Direct)
  • Tina asked Rina where she lived. Rina replied that she lived at Dhanmondi. (Indirect)

Rule 3:

Passage-এ যদি বক্তা একের অধিক উক্তি ব্যবহার করে তবে প্রথম উক্তি উল্লেখ করার পর, পরবর্তী উক্তিগুলো উল্লেখ করার সময় নিম্নোক্ত নিয়মগুলো অনুসরণ করা হয়:

i. Assertive sentence-এর ক্ষেত্রে: also said/again said, added/further added, প্রভৃতি ব্যবহার করা হয়।

In case of Assertive sentences: also said/again said, added/further added, etc. are used.

ii. Interrogative sentence-এর ক্ষেত্রে: also asked/again asked/ further asked, প্রভৃতি ব্যবহার করা হয়।

In case of Interrogative sentences: also asked/again asked/ further asked, etc. are used.

iii. Imperative sentence-এর ক্ষেত্রে: and ordered to/ and requested, প্রভৃতি ব্যবহার করা হয়।

In case of Imperative sentences: and ordered to/ and requested, etc. are used.

iv. Optative sentence-এর ক্ষেত্রে: and wished/and prayed that, প্রভৃতি ব্যবহার করা হয়।

In case of Optative sentences: and wished/and prayed that, etc. are used.

v. Exclamatory sentence-এর ক্ষেত্রে: and exclaimed with happiness/ joy that/in grief that, প্রভৃতি ব্যবহার করা হয়।

In case of Exclamatory sentences: and exclaimed with happiness/ joy that/in grief that, etc. are used.

Example:

  • “I will help you to solve this problem. I am responsible for it.” The boy said. “Why did you do it? Do you have time for it? You are leaving Dhaka this evening.” I said. (Direct)
  • The boy told me that he would solve this problem. He added that he was responsible for it. I asked him the reason for doing it. I also asked if he had time for it. I added that he was leaving Dhaka that evening. (Indirect)

Rule 4:

If reported speech has only “Yes”, then Subject+ replied in the affirmative or Subject+ Auxilliary Verb is used and if reported speech has other speech after “Yes”, then Subject+ replied in the affirmative and said that is used.

যদি reported speech-এ শুধু “Yes”থাকে তবে Subject+ replied in the affirmative বা Subject+ Auxilliary Verb ব্যবহার করা হয় এবং reported speech-এ “Yes”-এর পর আরও বক্তব্য থাকে তবে Subject+ replied in the affirmative and said that ব্যবহৃত হয়।

Example:

  • I said to him, “Have you done the math?”. “Yes. I have also done another one.” He said. (Direct)
  • I asked him if he had done the math. He replied in the affirmative. Or, he said that he had. And he said that he had also done another one. (Indirect)

Rule 5:

If reported speech has only “No”, then Subject+ replied in the negative or Subject+ Auxilliary Verb+ not is used and if reported speech has other speech after “No”, then Subject+ replied in the negative and said that is used.

যদি reported speech-এ শুধু “No” থাকে তবে Subject+ replied in the negative বা Subject+ Auxilliary Verb+ not ব্যবহার করা হয় এবং reported speech-এ “No” এর পর আরও বক্তব্য থাকে তবে Subject+ replied in the negative and said that ব্যবহৃত হয়।

Example:

  • I said to him, “Have you done the math?”. “No. I will do it later.” He said. (Direct)
  • I asked him if he had done the math. He replied in the negative. Or, he said that he had not. And he said that he would do it later. (Indirect)

Rule 6:

When direct speech has “Sir”, the indirect speech will use with respect/respectfully/ politely instead of “Sir”.

যখন direct speech-এ “Sir” থাকে, indirect speech “Sir” এর পরিবর্তে with respect/respectfully/ politely ব্যবহার করবে।

Example:

  • The student said to the teacher,” Sir, will you teach me the math?” (Direct)
  • The student asked the teacher respectfully if he would teach him the math. / The student respectfully asked the teacher if he would teach him the math. (Indirect)

Rule 7:

If someone is addressed in the direct speech, the indirect speech will use addressing ‘as’.

যদি direct speech-এ কাউকে সম্বোধন করা হয় তবে indirect speech-এ addressing as ব্যবহৃত হয়।

Example:

  • “Are you okay, Tonni?” said Piu. (Direct)
  • Addressing as Tonni, Piu asked if she was okay. (Indirect)

Rule 8:

If outside the inverted comma reporting speech has “ask”, it will be used after the subject in the indirect speech.

যদি inverted comma-র বাইরে reporting speech-এ “ask” থাকে, তবে তা indirect speech-এ subject-এর পরে ব্যবহৃত হয়।

Example:

  • “Are you coming?” asked Rina looking at me. “You may join me when I ” Rina said. (Direct)
  • Looking at me, Rina asked If I was going. She suggested me to join her when she would go. (Indirect)

Rule 9:

When reported speech has a note of interrogation (?) after an assertive sentence, the indirect speech will use “being surprised” before the reporting verb.

যখন reported speech-এ একটি assertive sentence-এর পর note of interrogation (?) থাকে, indirect speech-এ reporting verb-এর আগে “being surprised” ব্যবহার করা হয়।

Example:

  • He said to me, “You did it?” (Direct)
  • Being surprised he asked me if I had done it. (Indirect)

Rule 10:

When reported speech has “Thank”, the indirect speech will use reported verb’s subject+ thanked+ reported verb’s object.

যখন reported speech-এ “Thank” থাকে, তখন indirect speech, reported verb’s subject+ thanked+ reported verb’s object ব্যবহার করে।

Example:

  • Karim said to me, “Thank you.” (Direct)
  • Karim thanked me. (Indirect)

Rule 11:

If reported speech has “Goodbye”, the indirect speech will use reported verb’s subject+ bade+ reported verb’s object+ goodbye.

যদি reported speech-এ “Good bye” থাকে তবে indirect speech, reported verb’s subject+ bade+ reported verb’s object+ good bye ব্যবহার করবে।

Example:

  • She said Lira, “Goodbye.” (Direct)
  • She bade Lira goodbye. (Indirect)

Rule 12:

If reported speech has a good night/good morning/ good evening, the indirect speech will use, reported verb’s subject+ wished+ reported verb’s object+ good night/good morning/ good evening.

যদি reported speech-এ good night/good morning/ good evening থাকে তবে indirect speech, reported verb’s subject+ wished+ reported verb’s object+ good night/good morning/ good evening ব্যবহার করবে।

Example:

  • He said to her, “Good evening.” (Direct)
  • He wished her good evening. (Indirect)

Rule 13:

Sometimes reported speech doesn’t have a complete sentence, in those cases, you have to follow the speaker’s speech in indirect speech to get the full meaning.

কোন কোনসময় reported speech-এ সম্পূর্ণ sentence থাকেনা, সেসব ক্ষেত্রে আপনাকে indirect speech-এ বক্তার বক্তব্য অনুসরণ করে পূর্ণাঙ্গ অর্থ খুঁজে নিতে হবে।

Example:

  • “Thirty taka” The salesman said to me. (Direct)
  • The salesman told me it had been thirty taka (Indirect)

Rule 14:

Often reported speech doesn’t mention the speaker and the listener, in these cases you have to mention the speaker and the listener while transforming it into indirect speech.

প্রায়ই reported speech-এ বক্তা ও শ্রোতার উল্লেখ থাকে না, এসব ক্ষেত্রে আপনাকে একে indirect speech-এ রূপান্তরিত করতে বক্তার ক্ষেত্রে the speaker এবং শ্রোতার ক্ষেত্রে the listener উল্লেখ করতে হবে।

Example:

  • “What are you doing now?” “I am writing an article.” (Direct)
  • The speaker asked the listener what he was doing then. The listener replied that s/he was writing an article. (Indirect)

Rule 15:

If reported speech has asked/ cried/replied/muttered, the reporting verb in the indirect speech will be unchanged.

যদি reported speech-এ asked/ cried/replied/muttered থাকে তবে indirect speech-এ reporting verb-এর কোন পরিবর্তন হবেনা।

Example:

  • “Help me.” He cried. (Direct)
  • He cried to help him. (Indirect)

 

Published By
About us  | Privacy Policy | Terms of Service
© 2018 grammarbd.com All Rights Reserved.